WORLD LANGUAGES (9) / AMERIND, NA-DENE, ESKIMO ALEUT ; and “The conclusion”

Today is the day, we almost finish our journey. Today, i will write about AMERICA. You know… We need to know about Native american language because, to be honest, lots of people don’t know anything about it.

So, let’s digging!


Amerind

Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen. Greenberg proposed that all of the indigenous languages of the Americas belong to one of three language families, the previously established Eskimo–Aleut and Na–Dene, and with everything else—otherwise classified by specialists as belonging to dozens of independent families—as Amerind. Due to a large number of methodological flaws in the 1987 book Language in the Americas, the relationships he proposed between these languages have been rejected by the majority of historical linguists as spurious.

The term Amerind is also occasionally used to refer broadly to the various indigenous languages of the Americas without necessarily implying that they are a genealogical group. To avoid ambiguity, the term Amerindian is often used for the latter meaning.

Below is the current state of Amerindian classification, as given in An Amerind Etymological Dictionary, by Joseph Greenberg and Merritt Ruhlen, Stanford University, 2007.

  1. North–Central Amerind
    1. Northern Amerind
      1. Almosan–Keresiouan
        1. Almosan
          1. Algic
          2. Kutenai
          3. Mosan
            1. Chimakuan
            2. Salishan
            3. Wakashan
        2. Keresiouan
          1. Caddoan
          2. Iroquoian
          3. Keresan
          4. Siouan–Yuchi
            1. Siouan
            2. Yuchi
      2. Penutian–Hokan
        1. Penutian
          1. Tsimshian
          2. Chinook
          3. Oregon
          4. Plateau
          5. California
            1. Maiduan
            2. Miwok–Costanoan
            3. Wintun
            4. Yokutsan
          6. Zuni
          7. Gulf
            1. Atakapa
            2. Chitimacha
            3. Muskogean
            4. Natchez
            5. Tunica
            6. Yukian
              1. Yuki
              2. Wappo
          8. Mexican Penutian
            1. Huave
            2. Mayan
            3. Mixe–Zoque
            4. Totonac
        2. Hokan
          1. Northern Hokan
            1. Karok–Shasta
              1. Karok
              2. Chimariko
              3. Shasta–Achomawi
                1. Shasta
                2. Achomawi
            2. Yana
            3. Pomoan
          2. Washo
          3. Salinan–Chumash
            1. Salinan
            2. Chumash
            3. Esselen
          4. Seri–Yuman
            1. Seri
            2. Yuman
          5. Waicuri–Quinigua
            1. Waicuri
            2. Maratino
            3. Quinigua
          6. Coahuiltecan
          7. Tequistlatec
          8. Subtiaba
          9. Jicaque
          10. Yurumangui
    2. Central Amerind
      1. Tanoan
      2. Uto-Aztekan
      3. Oto-Manguean
  2. Southern Amerind
    1. Andean–Chibchan–Paezan
      1. Chibchan–Paezan
        1. Macro-Chibchan
          1. Cuitlatec
          2. Lenca
          3. Chibchan
          4. Paya
          5. Purépecha
          6. Yanomam
          7. Yunca–Puruhan
        2. Macro-Paezan
          1. Allentiac
          2. Atacama
          3. Betoi
          4. Chimu–Mochita
          5. Itonama
          6. Jirajara
          7. Mura
          8. Paezan
          9. Timucua
          10. Warrao
      2. Andean
        1. Aymara
        2. Itucale–Sabela
          1. Itucale
          2. Mayna
          3. Sabela
        3. Cahuapana–Zaparo
          1. Cahuapana
          2. Zaparo
        4. Northern Andean
          1. Catacao
          2. Cholona
          3. Culli
          4. Leco
          5. Sechura
        5. Quechua
        6. Southern Andean
          1. Qawasqar
          2. Mapudungu
          3. Gennaken
          4. Chon
          5. Yamana
    2. Equatorial–Tucanoan
      1. Equatorial
        1. Macro-Arawakan
        2. Cayuvava
        3. Coche
        4. Jivaro–Kandoshi
          1. Cofán
          2. Esmeralda
          3. Jivaro
          4. Kandoshi
          5. Yaruro
        5. Kariri–Tupi
        6. Piaroa
        7. Taruma
        8. Timote
        9. Trumai
        10. Tusha
        11. Yuracaré
        12. Zamuco
      2. Macro-Tucanoan
        1. Auixiri
        2. Canichana
        3. Capixana
        4. Catuquina
        5. Gamella
        6. Huari
        7. Iranshe
        8. Kaliana–Maku
        9. Koaia
        10. Movima
        11. Muniche
        12. Nambikwara
        13. Natu
        14. Pankaruru
        15. Puinave
        16. Shukuru
        17. Ticuna–Yuri
        18. Tucanoan
        19. Uman
    3. Ge–Pano–Carib
      1. Macro-Carib
        1. Andoke
        2. Bora–Uitoto
        3. Carib
        4. Kukura [spurious]
        5. Yagua
      2. Macro-Panoan
        1. Charruan
        2. Lengua
        3. Lule–Vilela
        4. Mataco–Guaicuru
        5. Moseten
        6. Pano–Tacanan
      3. Macro-Gê
        1. Bororo
        2. Botocudo
        3. Caraja
        4. Chiquito
        5. Erikbatsa
        6. Fulnio
        7. Ge–Kaingang
        8. Guató
        9. Kamakan
        10. Mashakali
        11. Opaie
        12. Oti
        13. Puri
        14. Yabuti

(source : here)


Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska, Nunavut, and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families, as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages.

Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made, such as Joseph Greenberg’s Amerind hypothesis. This scheme is rejected by nearly all specialists, due to the fact that some of the languages differ too significantly to draw any connections between them.

Native American languages, languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent. have become extinct, but many of them are still in use today. The classification “Native American languages” is geographical rather than linguistic, since those languages do not belong to a single linguistic family, or stock, as the Indo-European or Afroasiatic languages do. There is no part of the world with as many distinctly different native languages as the Western Hemisphere. Because the number of indigenous American tongues is so large, it is convenient to discuss them under three geographical divisions: North America (excluding Mexico), Mexico and Central America, and South America and the West Indies. 

According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous American languages are critically endangered, and many are already extinct. The most widely spoken indigenous language is Southern Quechua, with about 6 to 7 million speakers, primarily in South America.

North America (excluding Mexico)

There are approximately 296 spoken (or formerly spoken) indigenous languages north of Mexico, 269 of which are grouped into 29 families (the remaining 27 languages are either isolates or unclassified).

The Na-Dené, Algic, and Uto-Aztecan families are the largest in terms of number of languages.

Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl); Na-Dené comes in second with approximately 200,000 speakers (nearly 180,000 of these are speakers of Navajo), and Algic in third with about 180,000 speakers (mainly Cree and Ojibwe).

Na-Dené and Algic have the widest geographic distributions: Algic currently spans from northeastern Canada across much of the continent down to northeastern Mexico (due to later migrations of the Kickapoo) with two outliers in California (Yurok and Wiyot); Na-Dené spans from Alaska and western Canada through Washington, Oregon, and California to the U.S. Southwest and northern Mexico (with one outlier in the Plains). Several families consist of only 2 or 3 languages.

Demonstrating genetic relationships has proved difficult due to the great linguistic diversity present in North America. Two large (super-) family proposals, Penutian and Hokan, look particularly promising. However, even after decades of research, a large number of families remain.

North America is notable for its linguistic diversity, especially in California. This area has 18 language families comprising 74 languages (compared to four families in Europe: Indo-European, Uralic, Turkic, and Afroasiatic and one isolate, Basque).

Due to the diversity of languages in North America, it is difficult to make generalizations for the region. Most North American languages have a relatively small number of vowels (i.e. three to five vowels). Languages of the western half of North America often have relatively large consonant inventories. The languages of the Pacific Northwest are notable for their complex phonotactics (for example, some languages have words that lack vowels entirely). The languages of the Plateau area have relatively rare pharyngeals and epiglottals (they are otherwise restricted to Afroasiatic languages and the languages of the Caucasus). Ejective consonants are also common in western North America, although they are rare elsewhere (except, again, for the Caucasus region, parts of Africa, and the Mayan family).

Head-marking is found in many languages of North America (as well as in Central and South America), but outside of the Americas it is rare. Many languages throughout North America are polysynthetic (Eskimo–Aleut languages are extreme examples), although this is not characteristic of all North American languages (contrary to what was believed by 19th-century linguists). Several families have unique traits, such as the inverse number marking of the Tanoan languages, the lexical affixes of the Wakashan, Salishan and Chimakuan languages, and the unusual verb structure of Na-Dené.

The classification below is a composite of Goddard (1996), Campbell (1997), and Mithun (1999).

  1. Adai 
  2. Algic (30)
  3. Alsea (2) 
  4. Atakapa 
  5. Beothuk 
  6. Caddoan (5)
  7. Cayuse 
  8. Chimakuan (2) 
  9. Chimariko 
  10. Chinookan (3) 
  11. Chitimacha 
  12. Chumashan (6) 
  13. Coahuilteco 
  14. Comecrudan (United States & Mexico) (3) 
  15. Coosan (2) 
  16. Cotoname 
  17. Eskimo–Aleut (7)
  18. Esselen 
  19. Haida
  20. Iroquoian (11)
  21. Kalapuyan (3) 
  22. Karankawa 
  23. Karuk
  24. Keresan (2)
  25. Kutenai
  26. Maiduan (4)
  27. Muskogean (9)
  28. Na-Dené (United States, Canada & Mexico) (39)
  29. Natchez 
  30. Palaihnihan (2)
  31. Plateau Penutian (4) (also known as Shahapwailutan)
  32. Pomoan (7)
  33. Salinan 
  34. Salishan (23)
  35. Shastan (4) 
  36. Siouan (19)
  37. Siuslaw 
  38. Solano 
  39. Takelma 
  40. Tanoan (7)
  41. Timucua 
  42. Tonkawa 
  43. Tsimshianic (2)
  44. Tunica 
  45. Utian (15) (also known as Miwok–Costanoan)
  46. Uto-Aztecan (33)
  47. Wakashan (7)
  48. Wappo 
  49. Washo
  50. Wintuan (4)
  51. Yana 
  52. Yokutsan (3)
  53. Yuchi
  54. Yuki 
  55. Yuman–Cochimí (11)
  56. Zuni

Central America and Mexico

In Central America the Mayan languages are among those used today. Mayan languages are spoken by at least 6 million indigenous Maya, primarily in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize and Honduras. In 1996, Guatemala formally recognized 21 Mayan languages by name, and Mexico recognizes eight more. The Mayan language family is one of the best documented and most studied in the Americas. Modern Mayan languages descend from Proto-Mayan, a language thought to have been spoken at least 4,000 years ago; it has been partially reconstructed using the comparative method.

  1. Alagüilac (Guatemala) 
  2. Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
  3. Coahuilteco 
  4. Comecrudan (Texas & Mexico) (3) 
  5. Cotoname 
  6. Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero) 
  7. Epi-Olmec (Mexico: language of undeciphered inscriptions) 
  8. Guaicurian (8)
  9. Huave
  10. Jicaquean (2)
  11. Lencan (2) 
  12. Maratino (northeastern Mexico) 
  13. Mayan (31)
  14. Misumalpan (5)
  15. Mixe–Zoquean (19)
  16. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas) 
  17. Oto-Manguean (27)
  18. Pericú 
  19. Purépecha
  20. Quinigua (northeast Mexico) 
  21. Seri
  22. Solano 
  23. Tequistlatecan (3)
  24. Totonacan (2)
  25. Uto-Aztecan (United States & Mexico) (33)
  26. Xincan (5) 
  27. Yuman (United States & Mexico) (11)

South America and the Caribbean

Some of the greater families of South America: dark spots are language isolates or quasi-isolate, grey spots unclassified languages or languages with doubtful classification. (Note that Quechua, the family with most speakers, is not displayed.)

Although both North and Central America are very diverse areas, South America has a linguistic diversity rivalled by only a few other places in the world with approximately 350 languages still spoken and an estimated 1,500 languages at first European contact. The situation of language documentation and classification into genetic families is not as advanced as in North America (which is relatively well studied in many areas). 

  1. Aguano 
  2. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (also known as Aikanã, Tubarão)
  3. Andaquí (also known as Andaqui, Andakí) 
  4. Andoque (Colombia, Peru) (also known as Andoke)
  5. Andoquero 
  6. Arauan (9)
  7. Arawakan (South America & Caribbean) (64) (also known as Maipurean)
  8. Arutani
  9. Aymaran (3)
  10. Baenan (Brazil: Bahia) (also known as Baenán, Baenã) 
  11. Barbacoan (8)
  12. Betoi (Colombia) (also known as Betoy, Jirara) 
  13. Bororoan
  14. Botocudoan (3) (also known as Aimoré)
  15. Cahuapanan (2) (also known as Jebero, Kawapánan)
  16. Camsá (Colombia) (also known as Sibundoy, Coche)
  17. Candoshi (also known as Maina, Kandoshi)
  18. Canichana (Bolivia) (also known as Canesi, Kanichana)
  19. Carabayo
  20. Cariban (29) (also known as Caribe, Carib)
  21. Catacaoan (also known as Katakáoan) 
  22. Cayubaba (Bolivia)
  23. Chapacuran (9) (also known as Chapacura-Wanham, Txapakúran)
  24. Charruan (also known as Charrúan) 
  25. Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
  26. Chimuan (3) 
  27. Chipaya–Uru (also known as Uru–Chipaya)
  28. Chiquitano
  29. Choco (10) (also known as Chocoan)
  30. Chon (2) (also known as Patagonian)
  31. Chono 
  32. Coeruna (Brazil) 
  33. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador)
  34. Cueva 
  35. Culle (Peru) (also known as Culli, Linga, Kulyi) 
  36. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) (also known as Atacama, Atakama, Atacameño, Lipe, Kunsa) 
  37. Esmeraldeño (also known as Esmeralda, Takame) 
  38. Fulnió
  39. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão) 
  40. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia) 
  41. Guaicuruan (7) (also known as Guaykuruan, Waikurúan)
  42. Guajiboan (4) (also known as Wahívoan)
  43. Guamo (Venezuela) (also known as Wamo) 
  44. Guató
  45. Harakmbut (2) (also known as Tuyoneri)
  46. Hibito–Cholon 
  47. Himarimã
  48. Hodï (Venezuela) (also known as Jotí, Hoti, Waruwaru)
  49. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco) 
  50. Huaorani (Ecuador, Peru) (also known as Auca, Huaorani, Wao, Auka, Sabela, Waorani, Waodani)
  51. Huarpe (also known as Warpe) 
  52. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  53. Itonama (Bolivia) (also known as Saramo, Machoto)
  54. Jabutian
  55. Je (13) (also known as Gê, Jêan, Gêan, Ye)
  56. Jeikó 
  57. Jirajaran (3) (also known as Hiraháran, Jirajarano, Jirajarana) 
  58. Jivaroan (2) (also known as Hívaro)
  59. Kaimbe
  60. Kaliana (also known as Caliana, Cariana, Sapé, Chirichano)
  61. Kamakanan 
  62. Kapixaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (also known as Kanoé, Kapishaná)
  63. Karajá
  64. Karirí (Brazil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará) 
  65. Katembrí 
  66. Katukinan (3) (also known as Catuquinan)
  67. Kawésqar (Chile) (Kaweskar, Alacaluf, Qawasqar, Halawalip, Aksaná, Hekaine)
  68. Kwaza (Koayá) (Brazil: Rondônia)
  69. Leco (Lapalapa, Leko)
  70. Lule (Argentina) (also known as Tonocoté)
  71. Maku (cf. other Maku)
  72. Malibú (also known as Malibu)
  73. Mapudungu (Chile, Argentina) (also known as Araucanian, Mapuche, Huilliche)
  74. Mascoyan (5) (also known as Maskóian, Mascoian)
  75. Matacoan (4) (also known as Mataguayan)
  76. Matanawí 
  77. Maxakalían (3) (also known as Mashakalían)
  78. Mocana (Colombia: Tubará) 
  79. Mosetenan (also known as Mosetén)
  80. Movima (Bolivia)
  81. Munichi (Peru) (also known as Muniche)
  82. Muran (4)
  83. Mutú (also known as Loco)
  84. Nadahup (5)
  85. Nambiquaran (5)
  86. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco) 
  87. Nonuya (Peru, Colombia)
  88. Ofayé
  89. Old Catío–Nutabe (Colombia) 
  90. Omurano (Peru) (also known as Mayna, Mumurana, Numurana, Maina, Rimachu, Roamaina, Umurano) 
  91. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo) 
  92. Otomakoan (2) 
  93. Paez (also known as Nasa Yuwe)
  94. Palta 
  95. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco) 
  96. Pano–Tacanan (33)
  97. Panzaleo (Ecuador) (also known as Latacunga, Quito, Pansaleo) 
  98. Patagon  (Peru)
  99. Peba–Yaguan (2) (also known as Yaguan, Yáwan, Peban)
  100. Pijao†
  101. Pre-Arawakan languages of the Greater Antilles (Guanahatabey, Macorix, Ciguayo)  (Cuba, Hispaniola)
  102. Puelche (Chile) (also known as Guenaken, Gennaken, Pampa, Pehuenche, Ranquelche) 
  103. Puinave (also known as Makú)
  104. Puquina (Bolivia) 
  105. Purian (2) 
  106. Quechuan (46)
  107. Rikbaktsá
  108. Saliban (2) (also known as Sálivan)
  109. Sechura (Atalan, Sec) 
  110. Tabancale  (Peru)
  111. Tairona (Colombia) 
  112. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte) 
  113. Taruma 
  114. Taushiro (Peru) (also known as Pinchi, Pinche)
  115. Tequiraca (Peru) (also known as Tekiraka, Avishiri) 
  116. Teushen  (Patagonia, Argentina)
  117. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) (also known as Magta, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukna, Tukuna)
  118. Timotean (2) 
  119. Tiniguan (2) (also known as Tiníwan, Pamiguan) 
  120. Trumai (Brazil: Xingu, Mato Grosso)
  121. Tucanoan (15)
  122. Tupian (70, including Guaraní)
  123. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco) 
  124. Urarina (also known as Shimacu, Itukale, Shimaku)
  125. Vilela
  126. Wakona 
  127. Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela) (also known as Guarao)
  128. Witotoan (6) (also known as Huitotoan, Bora–Witótoan)
  129. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco) (also known as Shokó) 
  130. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba) 
  131. Yaghan (Chile) (also known as Yámana)
  132. Yanomaman (4)
  133. Yaruro (also known as Jaruro)
  134. Yuracare (Bolivia)
  135. Yuri (Colombia, Brazil) (also known as Carabayo, Jurí) 
  136. Yurumanguí (Colombia) (also known as Yurimangui, Yurimangi) 
  137. Zamucoan (2)
  138. Zaparoan (5) (also known as Záparo)

Unattested languages

Several languages are only known by mention in historical documents or from only a few names or words. It cannot be determined that these languages actually existed or that the few recorded words are actually of known or unknown languages. Some may simply be from a historian’s errors. Others are of known people with no linguistic record (sometimes due to lost records)

  • Ais
  • Akokisa
  • Aranama
  • Ausaima
  • Avoyel
  • Bayagoula
  • Bidai
  • Cacán (Diaguita–Calchaquí)
  • Calusa – Mayaimi – Tequesta
  • Cusabo
  • Eyeish
  • Grigra
  • Guale
  • Houma
  • Koroa
  • Manek’enk (Haush) [perhaps Chon]
  • Mayaca (possibly related to Ais)
  • Mobila
  • Okelousa
  • Opelousa
  • Pascagoula
  • Pensacola – Chatot (Muscogean languages, possibly related to Choctaw)
  • Pisabo [possibly the same language as Matsés]
  • Quinipissa
  • Taensa
  • Tiou
  • Yamacraw
  • Yamasee
  • Yazoo

Pidgins and mixed languages

Various miscellaneous languages such as pidgins, mixed languages, trade languages, and sign languages are given below in alphabetical order.

  1. American Indian Pidgin English
  2. Algonquian-Basque pidgin (also known as Micmac-Basque Pidgin, Souriquois; spoken by the Basques, Micmacs, andMontagnais in eastern Canada)
  3. Broken Oghibbeway (also known as Broken Ojibwa)
  4. Broken Slavey
  5. Bungee (also known as Bungi, Bungie, Bungay, or the Red River Dialect)
  6. Callahuaya (also known as Machaj-Juyai, Kallawaya, Collahuaya, Pohena, Kolyawaya Jargon)
  7. Carib Pidgin (also known as Ndjuka-Amerindian Pidgin, Ndjuka-Trio)
  8. Carib Pidgin–Arawak Mixed Language
  9. Catalangu
  10. Chinook Jargon
  11. Delaware Jargon (also known as Pidgin Delaware)
  12. Eskimo Trade Jargon (also known as Herschel Island Eskimo Pidgin, Ship’s Jargon)
  13. Greenlandic Pidgin (West Greenlandic Pidgin)
  14. Guajiro-Spanish
  15. Güegüence-Nicarao
  16. Haida Jargon
  17. Inuktitut-English Pidgin (Quebec)
  18. Jargonized Powhatan
  19. Labrador Eskimo Pidgin (also known as Labrador Inuit Pidgin)
  20. Lingua Franca Apalachee
  21. Lingua Franca Creek
  22. Lingua Geral Amazônica (also known as Nheengatú, Lingua Boa, Lingua Brasílica, Lingua Geral do Norte)
  23. Lingua Geral do Sul (also known as Lingua Geral Paulista, Tupí Austral)
  24. Loucheux Jargon (also known as Jargon Loucheux)
  25. Media Lengua
  26. Mednyj Aleut (also known as Copper Island Aleut, Medniy Aleut, CIA)
  27. Michif (also known as French Cree, Métis, Metchif, Mitchif, Métchif)
  28. Mobilian Jargon (also known as Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw-Chocaw Trade Language, Yamá)
  29. Montagnais Pidgin Basque (also known as Pidgin Basque-Montagnais)
  30. Nootka Jargon (spoken during the 18th-19th centuries; later replaced by Chinook Jargon)
  31. Ocaneechi (also known as Occaneechee; spoken in Virginia and the Carolinas in early colonial times)
  32. Pidgin Massachusett
  33. Plains Indian Sign Language

(source : here, here)


Na-Dene (north american, Native)

Na-Dene (NadeneNa-DenéAthabaskan–Eyak–TlingitTlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages. An old inclusion of Haida is now considered doubtful.

In February 2008, a proposal connecting Na-Dene (excluding Haida) to the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia into a Dené–Yeniseian family was published and well-received by a number of linguists. It was proposed in a 2014 paper that the Na-Dene languages of North America and the Yeniseian languages of Siberia had a common origin in a language spoken in Beringia, between the two continents.

In its non-controversial core, Na-Dene consists of two branches, Tlingit and Athabaskan–Eyak:

  • Tlingit: 700 speakers (Michael Krauss, 1995)
  • Athabaskan–Eyak
    • Eyak : extinct in 2008
    • Athabaskan
      • Northern
      • Pacific Coast
      • Southern

For linguists who follow Edward Sapir in connecting Haida to the above languages, Haida represents an additional branch, with Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit together forming the other. Dene or Dine (the Athabaskan languages) is a widely distributed group of Native languages spoken by associated peoples in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Alaska, parts of Oregon, northern California, and the American Southwest as far as northern Mexico.

The southwestern division of Athabaskan is also called Southern Athabaskan or Apachean, and includes Navajo and all the Apache dialects.

Eyak was spoken in south-central Alaska; the last speaker died in 2008. 

Navajo is by far the most widely spoken language of the Na-Dene family, spoken in Arizona, New Mexico, and other regions of the American Southwest.

(source : here)


Eskimo Aleut

The Eskimo–Aleut languagesEskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia. It is also known as EskaleutianEskaleutic or Inuit–Yupik-Unangan.

The Eskimo–Aleut language family is divided into two branches: the Eskimo languages and the Aleut language. The Aleut branch consists of a single language, Aleut, spoken in the Aleutian Islands and the Pribilof Islands. It is divided into several dialects. The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches: the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in easternmost Siberia, and the Inuit languages, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Inuit, which covers a huge range of territory, is divided into several varieties. Neighbouring varieties are quite similar, although those at the farthest distances from the centre in the Diomede Islands and East Greenland are quite divergent.

The proper place of one language, Sirenik, within the Eskimo family has not been settled. While some linguists list it as a branch of Yupik, others list it as a separate branch of the Eskimo family, alongside Yupik and Inuit.

Aleut

  • Western–Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers)
  • Eastern dialects: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)

Eskimo languages (or Yupik–Inuit languages)

  • Yupik (11,000 speakers)
    • Central Alaskan Yup’ik (10,000 speakers)
      • General Central Alaskan Yup’ik language (or Yugtun)
      • Chevak Cup’ik (or Cugtun)
      • Nunivak Cup’ig (or Cugtun)
    • Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yupik (400 speakers)
      • Koniag Alutiiq
      • Chugach Alutiiq
    • Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplino and St. Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers)
      • Chaplino dialect (Uŋazigmit)
      • St. Lawrence Island Yupik (Sivuqaghmiistun)
    • Naukan (70 speakers)
    • Sirenik (extinct) (viewed as an independent branch by some)
  • Inuit (98,000 speakers)
    • Inupiaq or Inupiat (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers)
      • Qawiaraq or Seward Peninsula Inupiaq
      • Inupiatun or Northern Alaska Inupiaq (including Uummarmiutun (Aklavik, Inuvik))
    • Inuvialuktun (western Canada, 765 speakers)
      • Siglitun (Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, Tuktoyaktuk)
      • Inuinnaqtun (in Ulukhaktok also known as Kangiryuarmiutun)
      • Natsilingmiutut (Nattilik area, Nunavut)
    • Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuinnaqtun, 40,000 speakers)
      • Nunatsiavummiutut (Nunatsiavut, 550 speakers)
      • Nunavimmiutitut (Nunavik)
      • Qikiqtaaluk nigiani (South Baffin)
      • Qikiqtaaluk uannangani (North Baffin)
      • Aivilimmiutut (Eastcentral Nunavut)
      • Kivallirmiutut (Southeast Nunavut)
    • Greenlandic (Greenland, 54,000 speakers)
      • Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic, 50,000 speakers)
      • Tunumiisut (East Greenlandic, 3,500 speakers)
      • Inuktun or Avanersuaq (Polar Eskimo, approx 1,000 speakers)

Aleut

The Aleut language survives in two mutually intelligible dialects: Eastern Aleut, spoken mostly by middle-aged and older people living in eight villages from the Alaska Peninsula westward through Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, and in the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea, which were settled beginning in 1800; and Atkan Aleut, which is spoken also by young people (but no children) on Atka Island, Aleutian Islands, and by some old people on Bering Island, Komandor Islands, Russia, settled in 1826. Attu, once the westernmost Aleut dialect in Alaska, is now extinct in Alaska, but Attuan Aleut survives on Bering Island in a creolized form (Russian Aleut), with Russian verbal inflections.

Inuit

Inuit, which means “the people” or “the real people,” is used as a name for the language spoken in Greenland, Arctic Canada, and northern Alaska, U.S., west to the Bering Strait and south to Norton Sound. It is a dialect continuum, in which neighbouring dialects are mutually intelligible but the cumulative differences impede or prevent understanding between groups that are some distance apart. This distinctiveness can be seen in the variety of language names; the Inuit language of Greenland is called Kalaallisut (literally “in the Greenlandic way”), that of eastern Canada Inuktitut, that of western Canada Inuktitun (literally “in the Inuit way”), and that of North Alaska Inupiaq (literally “real person”).

Yupik

Yupik, a dialectal form meaning “real person,” includes five languages: Central Alaskan Yupik, spoken southward from Norton Sound; Pacific Yupik, commonly called Alutiiq, spoken from the Alaska Peninsula eastward to Prince William Sound; Naukanski Siberian Yupik, whose speakers were resettled southward from Cape Dezhnyov, the easternmost point of the Eurasian landmass; Central Siberian Yupik (mainly Chaplinski), which is spoken in the Chukchi Peninsula and on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; and the very divergent Sirenikski, now virtually extinct.

(source : here and here)


FINISH!

There are some languages classified as “isolated”, so i wouldn’t write it here today. Perhaps someday after doing some research i could put it here.

Well well well…

Lots of people learn lots of languages, and still Indo-european was in the top first used language (english language expecially, used in all over the world with different accent). So it wasn’t strange or weird we used English languages all over the world. It built from the bigest used language (Indo-european) and also from the bigest-old languages family (Germanic – old english – english). As for other languages, we found them relate from one to other for some reason. First, where the country took place. Second, their war history. We knew it from France and German. They located very close yet had very distinct languages and accent. Don’t forget about england and irish. It happened because Irish came from Celtic and English came from Germanic. So did france. France mixed italic and germanic as they both grew their languages there. Italic came from Roman empire, when they conquer France. German came from old germanic, the most used (and known) language family that day. Similar with Korean, Japan, and Chinese who had slightly similar words but also very different. Chinese came from Sino-tibetan and Japonic & Koreanic came from Altaic. Although Korea and China are closer (their country are next to each other) than Japan and korea. North korea particulary had some north china accent but south korea is more likely have their own accent. Sino-tibetan on the other hand, sound similar to Tai-Kadai (more to the south china and some south-east-asia Tai Kadai user). Everything seemed boundly similar to one another because we actually still in one big evolution.

We will not know what will happened next centuries, but all we know was NOW we understand why and how those languages be languages we talk freely today. Also, we also knew how they bound together, sound similar, look similar, and sometimes they had same meaning

OKAY!

See you on the next research!

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